This CCTV wiring diagram shows a single IP camera (or multiple) set up wirelessly away from the recorder (NVR) and the router. The distance how far you can set up the cameras depends on the WiFi bridges’ capabilities. It can range from 500 meter and up to 10 km if the connection is properly established.
The CCTV scheme discussed in this article is similar to this one: CCTV diagram: CCTV diagram: IP camera, PoE injectors, WiFi bridges, router (no NVR/DVR). The difference is that here instead of one camera without a NVR, we can set up a few cameras and connect them to NVR that can record the footage remotely.
CCTV diagram: IP camera, switch PoE injectors, WiFi bridges, router and NVR
Take a look at the wiring diagram. For this CCTV wiring diagram we need these equipment:
An IP camera (or multiple IP cameras)
As you can see, in this CCTV diagram you can use a single IP camera or multiple, it all depends on your project. We suggest spending a few bucks more and purchasing good and reliable IP security cameras. Since it will be exposed to the elements, find one that is IP67 weatherproof rated.
These cameras can come with built-in microD card slots or without. Either way, the camera will store the footage on the NVR which will be hooked up remotely on the other side of the scheme.
If the camera has a microSD installed, it means you can store the footage twice, in the camera itself and on the NVR. If for some reason the NVR is not able to record (let’s say the connection is down), you can retrieve the footage from the camera itself.
In case the project is very important, get security cameras with microSD cards, just to be safe that no matter what happens, there will be footage saved from the cameras. Make sure to purchase a CCTV recommended microSD card.
The IP cameras will be connected to a PoE switch which means you don’t have to power up the camera separately, the power and data will get transmitted via the same Ethernet cable.
We need the PoE switch because that’s where the IP cameras are gonna be plugged in. You can get a 4 port or 8 port PoE switch, it depends on how many cameras you are planning to connect.
As a recommendation, always buy a reliable PoE switch from a well known manufacturer. Don’t go for anonymous brands or manufacturers who have not a good record. In some cases a bad PoE switch may damage and burn the IP cameras. On the WAN port of the switch you need to connect the WiFi bridge transmitter (while the cameras go to the ports labelled PoE at the back of the switch).
This device lets you bridge the two sides together. One piece (the one called the transmitter) goes to the camera’s side and the other (called the receiver) one goes to the router’s side. The distance how far the WiFi transmission can go depends on the WiFi Bridge model. It can vary from 500 meters up to 25km and it’s better to be on direct line of sight.
There are many WiFi bridge equipment on the market (see here), from our experience the Ubiquiti equipment is easy to install and very reliable for security systems. Moreover, their support is pretty good, if you’re stuck they can remotely help you.
As you can see on the diagram, the WiFi bridge transmitter connects via the PoE injector to the PoE switch where the IP security cameras are hooked up. The transmitter gets powered via the PoE Injector (or you can power it separately, if that works for you).
A PoE injector supplies power to the WiFi bridge transmitter by “injecting” power into the Ethernet cable. This article details how the PoE injectors work. Basically, in this CCTV diagram, we need the PoE injectors to power up the transmitter and the receiver of the WiFi bridge device. The PoE injector will get the power from the power outlet and then power up the transmission pieces via the Ethernet cable.
We need the NVR because we will add the remote cameras to this NVR. It’s basically the same as having the cameras on the local network and adding them one by one to the recorder. Instead, the IP cameras are located in quite a distance from the NVR and will be added wirelessly.
Another thing to keep in mind, the number of IP cameras you add to the NVR depends on how many channels are supported by the recorded. The NVRs (as seen here) come in 4 channels, 8 channels or 16 channels. So if you are installing 5 security cameras, then you need a 8 channel NVR.
In the NVR you can install hard drives where the footage is going to be stored. Many NVRs support two or more pieces of hard drives of size starting from 1TB and up to 10TB. The more TBs installed, the more footage you can record. As a side note, always buy hard drives rated for security surveillance systems.
In this case, the Wifi Bridge will wirelessly (2-5km) connect the IP camera to the NVR and then to your local router. Via the router you can connect (wirelessly or not) to your laptop, phone or tablet and access the NVR and from there the cameras’ video feed.
By accessing the NVR system you can see the view live, playback, backup the footage or do other settings on the NVR or on each camera individually.
How to connect the equipment
As you can see on the CCTV wiring diagram shown above, the IP camera(s) connects to the PoE switch which gets powered by the power outlet. The switch supports the PoE function, meaning you there’s no need to power the cameras separately. By using the same Ethernet (network) cable you transmit the data and the power.
On the WAN port of the switch, you should plug the cable coming from the PoE Injector which is connected to the WiFi transmitter. So, the PoE injector powers up the WiFi transmitter and connects it to the same PoE switch where all the IP security cameras are plugged in.
On the other side of the network, the second WiFi piece (the receiver) gets power via a second PoE injector from there gets plugged in straight to one of the ports of the NVR. The NVR itself is connected to the internet via the router (connect a cable from your NVR’s WAN port to the back of the router).
To set up the WiFi bridge, you need to go through the settings of the WiFi transmitter/receiver. Usually with the Ubiquiti devices this is done easily and automatically, the two pieces are linked together via their own software. Additionally, always bring a laptop on the jobsite to let the support team to remote in case you’re having problems with the linkage.
There’s a trick on how you set up the WiFi transmitter or receivers, there should be no obstacles between them and the higher you mount them the better. If obstacles are in the signal’s ways, the picture may be choppy or the effective distance may be reduced. Always inspect the jobsite and consult with the WiFi Bridge manufacturer.
Once done, you can access the NVR security camera system via your laptop, tablet or smartphone. From there you can view the cameras’ live feed, playback, backup footage or perform other actions via the NVR or on the cameras’ itself.
Will the picture be laggy or choppy?
The whole point of having a security camera system is collecting video evidence of incidents. The picture being choppy of laggy depends on various factors. For example, the WiFi transmitter and receiver should “see” each other without serious obstacles between them. The higher and closer the WiFi bridge pieces are installed, the more reliable the transmitted signal.
Another thing, a high resolution camera will need a lot of bandwidth which causes difficulty to transmit the signal properly. You can tweak the settings for each IP camera to achieve the perfect balance between the resolution, frame rate, bandwidth etc. Play with the settings remotely (or locally) until the picture is smooth and not choppy.
As always, the CCTV wiring diagram displayed on this article can be modified to your needs, you can add more IP security cameras, or power up the transmitter separately, etc. However, if you need to have security cameras installed in a remote location, this diagram advises the right way to do it. Keep in mind, this diagram works for IP cameras only, it won’t work for analog HD cameras that use DVRs.